Category: Speech Recognition

Voice Recognition in Ubuntu

Someone asked me about voice recognition the other day, so I thought it sounded like a fun little project to master.  Here’s my go at it.

Unfortunately, I didn’t have much luck with it.  Please post a comment if you get more working than I did.

Which Package to Install

I did a little research, and found that Wikipedia has a nice list of open source speech recognition programs.  While it’s not huge, it was a good place to start.  I chose Julius because it looked the most promising.

Installing Julius

Since Julius is in the repositories, installing it was easy!  I just installed it from the Software Center.

Installing Julius with the Software Center

I went a step further and installed the voxforge accoustic files from the “More Info” screen.

From what I can tell, there is no gui for julius (although, the project Simon might be a frontend for it).  You should find it installed on the command-line though:

[sourcecode]$ which julius
/usr/bin/julius
$ julius -help[/sourcecode]

Running Julius

Looking at the options, my first attempt was:

[sourcecode]$ julius -input mic
ERROR: m_chkparam: you should specify at least one LM to run Julius![/sourcecode]

The next thing I found was the VoxForge quickstart.  I downloaded the tarball, and extracted it:

[sourcecode]$tar -xzvf julius-3.5.2-quickstart-linux.tgz
$cd julius-3.5.2-quickstart-linux/
$ julius -input mic -C julian.jconf[/sourcecode]

That was closer, but it gave me this message at the end of all the output:

[sourcecode]

——
### read waveform input
Stat: adin_oss: device name = /dev/dsp (application default)
Error: adin_oss: failed to open /dev/dsp
failed to begin input stream[/sourcecode]

Adding padsp in front of the command fixed that problem:

[sourcecode]$ padsp julius -input mic -C julian.jconf[/sourcecode]

I still got warnings though…

[sourcecode]

### read waveform input
Stat: adin_oss: device name = /dev/dsp (application default)
Stat: adin_oss: sampling rate = 16000Hz
Stat: adin_oss: going to set latency to 50 msec
Stat: adin_oss: audio I/O Latency = 32 msec (fragment size = 512 samples)
STAT: AD-in thread created
<<< please speak >>>Warning: adin_oss: no data fragment after 300 msec?
Warning: adin_oss: no data fragment after 300 msec?
Warning: adin_oss: no data fragment after 300 msec?[/sourcecode]

If you open the Sound Settings, the warnings go away.  I thought was kind of flakey, but it worked.  Unfortunately, the output was a little cryptic, and didn’t give me the feedback that I needed.  This is what I get when I said, “Hello”:

[sourcecode]

pass1_best: <s> DIAL EIGHT
pass1_best_wordseq: 0 3 5
pass1_best_phonemeseq: sil | d ay ax l | ey t
pass1_best_score: -3177.784424
### Recognition: 2nd pass (RL heuristic best-first)
STAT: 00 _default: 13 generated, 13 pushed, 5 nodes popped in 109
sentence1: <s> DIAL OH </s>
wseq1: 0 3 5 1
phseq1: sil | d ay ax l | ow | sil
cmscore1: 1.000 1.000 0.997 1.000
score1: -3393.694580

[/sourcecode]

Running from a Recording

I probably could have used audacity much more easily, but since I was already on the command line, I decided to keep it there with the arecord program.  I used this line to record:

[sourcecode]$ arecord -r 16000 > test.wav[/sourcecode]

I played it back and it sounded kind of rough, but we’ll try it —

[sourcecode]$ mplayer test.wav[/sourcecode]

Next, I ran it through julius:

[sourcecode]

$ ls test.wav > test.txt
$ julius -input rawfile -filelist test.txt -C julian.jconf[/sourcecode]

Unfortunately, mplayer could play the file, but julius could not open it for some reason.

[sourcecode]

### read waveform input
Error: adin_file: bytes per second != 32000 (16000)
Error: adin_file: error in parsing wav header at test.wav
Error: adin_file: failed to read speech data: "test.wav"
0 files processed[/sourcecode]

So, I found an example that used sox to convert it.  I had to install sox with apt-get …

[sourcecode]sudo apt-get install sox[/sourcecode]

Then, I converted the file and ran it like this:

[sourcecode]$ sox test.wav -r 16000 -b 32 -c 1 test.s32
$ ls test.s32 > test.txt
$ julius -input rawfile -filelist test.txt -C julian.jconf[/sourcecode]

Still, this is the only output that I got:

[sourcecode]

### Recognition: 1st pass (LR beam)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………pass1_best: <s>
pass1_best_wordseq: 0
pass1_best_phonemeseq: sil
pass1_best_score: -2712.263916
### Recognition: 2nd pass (RL heuristic best-first)
WARNING: IW-triphone for word head "l-ow+t" not found, fallback to pseudo {ow+t}
WARNING: IW-triphone for word head "ow-ow+t" not found, fallback to pseudo {ow+t}
WARNING: IW-triphone for word head "t-ow+t" not found, fallback to pseudo {ow+t}
WARNING: IW-triphone for word head "uw-ow+t" not found, fallback to pseudo {ow+t}
WARNING: 00 _default: hypothesis stack exhausted, terminate search now
STAT: 00 _default: 0 sentences have been found
WARNING: 00 _default: got no candidates, search failed
STAT: 00 _default: 147 generated, 147 pushed, 147 nodes popped in 123
<search failed>
——
### read waveform input
1 files processed[/sourcecode]

I used audacity to cleanup the file.  The Noise Removal improved it somewhat, but it still wasn’t good quality.  Here’s the output after that:

[sourcecode]

### read waveform input
Stat: adin_file: input speechfile: test.wav
STAT: 30000 samples (1.88 sec.)
STAT: ### speech analysis (waveform -> MFCC)
### Recognition: 1st pass (LR beam)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………pass1_best: <s> DIAL OH </s>
pass1_best_wordseq: 0 3 5 1
pass1_best_phonemeseq: sil | d ay ax l | ow | sil
pass1_best_score: -5237.150391
### Recognition: 2nd pass (RL heuristic best-first)
STAT: 00 _default: 27 generated, 27 pushed, 5 nodes popped in 186
sentence1: <s> DIAL OH </s>
wseq1: 0 3 5 1
phseq1: sil | d ay ax l | ow | sil
cmscore1: 1.000 0.978 0.987 1.000
score1: -5225.757324
——
### read waveform input
1 files processed[/sourcecode]

I also tried creating a file from scratch in audacity, and I still couldn’t get it:

[sourcecode]

### read waveform input
Stat: adin_file: input speechfile: test.wav
STAT: 21176 samples (1.32 sec.)
STAT: ### speech analysis (waveform -> MFCC)
### Recognition: 1st pass (LR beam)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….pass1_best: <s> DIAL OH
pass1_best_wordseq: 0 3 5
pass1_best_phonemeseq: sil | d ay ax l | ow
pass1_best_score: -3417.226318
### Recognition: 2nd pass (RL heuristic best-first)
STAT: 00 _default: 23 generated, 23 pushed, 5 nodes popped in 130
sentence1: <s> DIAL OH </s>
wseq1: 0 3 5 1
phseq1: sil | d ay ax l | ow | sil
cmscore1: 1.000 0.911 1.000 1.000
score1: -3453.692871
——
### read waveform input
1 files processed[/sourcecode]

Running on YouTube Videos

My next task that I wanted to attempt was to try to capture something on a good recording.  So, let’s find a good YouTube video to run through julius.

I tried clive, but it failed for some reason:

[sourcecode]$sudo apt-get install clive

$ clive -cnrf best http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dePLd9HAYjQ
fetch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dePLd9HAYjQ …done.
error: no match: `(?-xism:url_encoded_fmt_stream_map=(.*?)&)'[/sourcecode]

So, I went back to my tried and true Video Downloader Firefox extension.  Here is the first video that I tried:

For God So Loved The World (song and hymn history) 

I converted the flv file to a wav like this:

[sourcecode]ffmpeg -i youtube.flv -vn -acodec pcm_s16le -ar 16000 -ac 1 -f wav test.wav[/sourcecode]

And, I ran it through Julius like this:

[sourcecode]$ ls test.wav > test.txt
$ julius -input rawfile -filelist test.txt -C julian.jconf[/sourcecode]

The end result was a segmentation fault!

I tried another one: Psalm 119 King James Holy Bible 

This one also have me a segmentation fault.

Another: Job 41 (King James Holy Bible) 

This one gave me this message:
[sourcecode]….trace_backptr: sentence length exceeded ( > 150)[/sourcecode]

VoxForge Example

If you want to play with the VoxForge addon package, you can look at the readme file that should be located here:

/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/README

 Here are all the files installed with it:
[sourcecode]$ dpkg -L julius-voxforge
/.
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/copyright
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/controlapp
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/controlapp/mediaplayer.grammar
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/controlapp/command.py
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/controlapp/mediaplayer.voca
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/controlapp/README.controlapp
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/README
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/sample.grammar
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/sample.voca
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/examples/julian.jconf.gz
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/dict.gz
/usr/share/doc/julius-voxforge/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/julius-voxforge
/usr/share/julius-voxforge/acoustic
/usr/share/julius-voxforge/acoustic/hmmdefs
/usr/share/julius-voxforge/acoustic/macros
/usr/share/julius-voxforge/acoustic/tiedlist[/sourcecode]

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